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Savely Yefremov
Savely Yefremov

Aviation And Airport Security : Terrorism And S...



The U.S. Department of Homeland Security is working to raise the baseline for aviation security across the globe by putting in place strengthened security measures, both seen and unseen, at all last-point-of-departure airports in 105 countries around world. These measures will be carried out in phases with our international partners.




Aviation and Airport Security : Terrorism and S...



A: Terrorist groups continue to target passenger aircraft, and The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has seen a web of threats to commercial aviation as terrorists pursue new attack methods. DHS continues to work with international partners to raise the baseline of global aviation security to keep the traveling public safe.


A: The Transportation Security Agency (TSA) lifted the restrictions on large personal electronic devices for the ten airports/nine airlines in the Middle East and North Africa, announced in March. These airports and airlines have successfully implemented the first phase of enhanced security measures. For additional information, read the FAQ and Fact Sheet.


A: TSA will continue to asses foreign airports and inspect airlines to ensure all U.S. regulations and international security standards are being met at last point of departure airports to the United States.


A: These new enhanced security measures were developed to effectively mitigate threats to aviation with minimum passenger inconvenience. Aviation partners that do not fulfill the security requirements within certain timeframes may still be subject to additional restrictions being imposed, including a ban on large personal electronic devices on aircraft.


A: Raising the baseline on global aviation security requires a long-term commitment from the United States and our international partners, and we understand that it takes time to fully implement new security measures, which is why a phased approach was most practical.


A: DHS/TSA will work with aviation partners to ensure these enhanced security measures are fully implemented through actions such as inspections, working-level technical exchanges, and ongoing capacity building efforts.


A: We cannot discuss specific details related to compliance of specific airports or airlines. Aviation partners that do not fulfill the security requirements within certain timeframes may still be subject to additional restrictions being imposed, including a ban on large personal electronic devices on aircraft.


Aviation security is a combination of measures and human and material resources in order to safeguard civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference. Unlawful interference could be acts of terrorism, sabotage, threat to life and property, communication of false threat, bombing, etc.


Large numbers of people pass through airports every day. This presents potential targets for terrorism and other forms of crime because of the number of people located in one place.[2] Similarly, the high concentration of people on large airliners increases the potentially high death rate with attacks on aircraft, and the ability to use a hijacked airplane as a lethal weapon may provide an alluring target for terrorism (such as during the September 11 attacks).[citation needed]


Airport security attempts to prevent any threats or potentially dangerous situations from arising or entering the country. If airport security does succeed then the chances of any dangerous situation, illegal items or threats entering into an aircraft, country or airport are greatly reduced. As such, airport security serves several purposes: To protect the airport and country from any threatening events, to reassure the traveling public that they are safe and to protect the country and their people.[citation needed]


Monte R. Belger of the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration notes "The goal of aviation security is to prevent harm to aircraft, passengers, and crew, as well as support national security and counter-terrorism policy."[3]


Generally people are screened through airport security into areas where the exit gates to the aircraft are located. These areas are often called "secure", "sterile" and airside. Passengers are discharged from airliners into the sterile area so that they usually will not have to be re-screened if disembarking from a domestic flight; however they are still subject to search at any time. Airport food outlets have started using plastic glasses and utensils as opposed to glasses made out of glass and utensils made out of metal to reduce the usefulness of such items as weapons.[citation needed]


In the United States non-passengers were once allowed on the concourses to meet arriving friends or relatives at their gates, but this is now greatly restricted due to the terrorist attacks. Non-passengers must obtain a gate pass to enter the secure area of the airport. The most common reasons that a non-passenger may obtain a gate pass is to assist children and the elderly as well as for attending business meetings that take place in the secure area of the airport. In the United States, at least 24 hours notice is generally required for those planning to attend a business meeting inside the secure area of the airport.[citation needed] Other countries, such as Australia do not restrict non-travellers from accessing the airside area, however non-travellers are typically subject to the same security scans as travellers.[14]


Throughout the world, there have been a few dozen airports that have instituted a version of a "trusted traveler program". Proponents argue that security screening can be made more efficient by detecting those people who are threats and then searching them. They argue that searching trusted, verified individuals should not take the amount of time it does. Critics argue that such programs decrease security by providing an easier path to carry contraband through.[16][17]


Another critical security measure used by several regional and international airports is that of fiber optic perimeter intrusion detection systems. These security systems allow airport security to locate and detect any intrusion on the airport perimeter, ensuring real-time, immediate intrusion notification that allows security personnel to assess the threat and track movement and engage necessary security procedures. This has notably been utilised at Dulles International Airport[18][19] and U.S. Military JFPASS.[20]


The Rome and Vienna airport attacks in December 1985 were two more instances of airport security failures. The attacks left 20 people dead when gunmen threw grenades and opened fire on travelers at El Al airline ticket counters.


On August 10, 2006, security at airports in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States was raised significantly due to the uncovering by British authorities of a terror plot aimed at detonating liquid explosives on flights originating from these countries. This is also notable as it was the first time the U.S. Terror Alert Level ever reached "red". The incident also led to tighter restrictions on carrying liquids and gels in hand luggage in the EU, Canada, and the United States.[22][23]


All restrictions involving airport security are determined by Transport Canada and some are implemented by the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA) in conjunction with the Airport Operator. Since the September 11 attacks, as well as the Air India bombing in 1985 and other incidents, airport security has tightened in Canada in order to prevent any attacks in Canadian Airspace.


CATSA launched its Restricted Area Identity Card (RAIC) program in January 2007. RAIC is the world's first dual biometric access control system for airports.[26] This program replaces the old Airport Restricted Area Passes issued to airport employees after security checks by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and Transport Canada with new cards (issued after the same checks are conducted) that contain biometric information (fingerprints and iris scans) belonging to the person issued the RAIC.


While CATSA is responsible for pre-board passenger and random non-passenger screening, they contract out to third-party "service providers" such as G4S, Securitas and GardaWorld to train, manage and employ the screening officers. In addition, individual airport authorities which were privatized in the 1990s by the Canadian Government are responsible for general airport security rather than CATSA and normally contract out to private companies and in the case of large airports, pay for a small contingent of local police officers to remain on site as well.


Regulation (EC) No 300/2008[27] of the European Parliament and of the Council establishes common rules in the European Union to protect civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference. The regulation's provisions apply to all airports or parts of airports located in an EU country that are not used exclusively for military purposes. The provisions also apply to all operators, including air carriers, providing services at the aforementioned airports. It also applies to all entities located inside or outside airport premises providing services to airports.[28]The standards of regulation 300/2008 are implemented by Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1998.[29]


Passenger, luggage and freight security checking and security guard duties are outsourced to contractors. General public security is the responsibility of the Finnish Police, which has an airport unit at Helsinki Airport. The airport unit has a criminal investigation, a canine and a TEPO (terrorist and bomb) squad, and a PTR (police, customs and border guard) intelligence component. Furthermore, units of the Finnish Border Guard units at airports often arrest wanted individuals or fugitives at the border, and the Finnish Customs seizes e.g. weapons, false documents or explosives in addition to wanted individuals.[30]


French security has been stepped up since terrorist attacks in France in 1986. In response France established the Vigipirate program. The program uses troops to reinforce local security and increases requirements in screenings and ID checks. Since 1996 security check-points have transferred from the Police Nationale/Gendarmerie de l'Air to private companies hired by the airport authorities. 041b061a72


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