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A Review of Plant Physiology, 4th Edition by Pandey S.N. and Sinha B.K.: A Must-Read Book for Plant Lovers



- Who are Pandey and Sinha and what is their book about? - What are the main features and benefits of the book? H2: The Cell - The structure and function of plant cells - The different biophysicochemical phenomena in plant cells - The role of colloids and protoplasm in plant cells H2: Mineral Nutrition - The essential elements and their functions in plants - The sources and uptake of minerals by plants - The deficiency and toxicity symptoms of minerals in plants H2: Photosynthesis - The photosynthetic apparatus and pigments in plants - The light and dark reactions of photosynthesis - The factors affecting photosynthesis and its regulation H2: Respiration - The glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and electron transport chain in plants - The types and roles of respiration in plants - The respiratory quotient and its significance in plants H2: Translocation of Solutes - The mechanisms and pathways of solute transport in plants - The role of phloem and xylem in solute transport - The factors affecting solute transport and its regulation H2: Nitrogen Metabolism - The sources and forms of nitrogen in plants - The nitrogen cycle and its importance for plants - The nitrogen fixation, assimilation, and transamination in plants H2: Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis - The structure and function of DNA and RNA in plants - The replication, transcription, and translation of DNA in plants - The genetic code and its features in plants H2: Growth and Development - The definition and measurement of growth in plants - The phases and kinetics of growth in plants - The factors affecting growth and development in plants H2: Plant Growth Regulators - The definition and classification of plant growth regulators - The biosynthesis, transport, and mode of action of plant growth regulators - The physiological effects of plant growth regulators on plants H2: Photoperiodism and Vernalization - The definition and types of photoperiodism in plants - The role of phytochrome and cryptochrome in photoperiodism - The definition and mechanism of vernalization in plants H2: Plant Movements - The definition and types of plant movements - The role of turgor, auxin, and light in plant movements - The examples and significance of plant movements H2: Fruiting - The definition and types of fruits in plants - The development and maturation of fruits in plants - The factors affecting fruiting and its regulation H2: Senescence - The definition and types of senescence in plants - The physiological changes during senescence in plants - The factors affecting senescence and its regulation H1: Conclusion - A summary of the main points covered in the article - A recommendation for the readers to buy the book - A call to action for the readers to share their feedback Table 2: Article with HTML formatting Introduction


Plant physiology is the branch of biology that studies how plants function, grow, and respond to their environment. It covers a wide range of topics, such as cell biology, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, molecular biology, ecology, evolution, agronomy, horticulture, forestry, etc. Plant physiology is important for understanding the basic principles of life, as well as for improving crop production, food security, environmental quality, biotechnology, medicine, etc.




plant physiology book pandey and sinha pdf 126



One of the most comprehensive and authoritative books on plant physiology is written by Pandey S.N. and Sinha B.K., two eminent professors of botany from India. Their book, titled Plant Physiology, 4th Edition, was published by Vikas Publishing House in 2009. It has 680 pages and covers all the major aspects of plant physiology in a lucid and systematic manner. The book is based on the latest research and literature, and includes numerous illustrations, examples, experiments, objective type questions, select readings, glossary, and index. The book is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students of botany, as well as for students preparing for various competitive examinations, such as IAS, PCS, and Medical Entrance Examinations of various boards.


The main features and benefits of the book are: - It explains the operational mechanisms of plants in a clear and concise way. - It provides a balanced coverage of both theoretical and experimental aspects of plant physiology. - It incorporates the latest developments and discoveries in the field of plant physiology. - It includes a large number of diagrams, tables, graphs, and charts to illustrate the concepts and data. - It offers a variety of exercises and questions to test the understanding and application of the topics. - It suggests further readings and references for each chapter to enhance the knowledge and interest of the readers. - It uses a simple and easy-to-follow language that makes the book accessible to a wide range of readers.


If you are interested in learning more about plant physiology, or if you are looking for a reliable and comprehensive source of information on this subject, you should definitely buy this book. It will not only help you to master the fundamentals of plant physiology, but also to appreciate the beauty and diversity of plant life. You can order this book online from various websites, such as Amazon, Flipkart, or Google Books. You can also download a PDF version of this book from some websites, such as Big Data or Google Books. However, we recommend that you buy the original hard copy of this book to support the authors and publishers, and to enjoy the best quality and experience of reading this book.


In this article, we will give you a brief overview of each chapter of this book, highlighting the main points and concepts that you will learn from reading this book. We hope that this article will motivate you to buy this book and read it in detail. We also invite you to share your feedback and comments on this article and this book with us. So, let's get started!


The Cell


The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of life. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells that perform various activities necessary for their survival and reproduction. Plant cells are different from animal cells in many ways, such as having a cell wall, chloroplasts, vacuoles, plasmodesmata, etc. In this chapter, you will learn about: - The structure and function of plant cells - The different biophysicochemical phenomena in plant cells - The role of colloids and protoplasm in plant cells


The structure and function of plant cells


Plant cells have a complex structure that consists of several organelles and components that perform specific functions. The main parts of a plant cell are: - The cell wall: It is a rigid layer that surrounds the plasma membrane and provides shape, support, protection, and communication to the cell. It is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, suberin, cutin, etc. - The plasma membrane: It is a thin layer that separates the cytoplasm from the external environment. It is composed mainly of phospholipids, proteins, carbohydrates, etc. It regulates the transport of materials in and out of the cell. It also participates in signal transduction, cell recognition, cell adhesion, etc. - The cytoplasm: It is a semi-fluid matrix that fills the interior of the cell. It contains various organelles, molecules, ions, etc. that perform various metabolic reactions and processes. It also provides a medium for the movement of materials within the cell. - The nucleus: It is a spherical or oval structure that contains the genetic material (DNA) of the cell. It is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope that has pores for communication with the cytoplasm. It controls the expression of genes and synthesis of proteins in the cell. It also contains a nucleolus that produces ribosomes. The different biophysicochemical phenomena in plant cells


Plant cells are constantly exposed to various physical and chemical stimuli and changes in their environment. They respond to these stimuli and changes by adjusting their structure and function accordingly. Some of the biophysicochemical phenomena that occur in plant cells are: - Diffusion: It is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration along a concentration gradient. It does not require energy or membrane involvement. It is important for the transport of gases, water, and small molecules across the cell wall and plasma membrane. - Osmosis: It is the movement of water molecules from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential across a selectively permeable membrane. It does not require energy but depends on the presence of solutes and pressure. It is important for the maintenance of cell turgor, water balance, and cell volume. - Plasmolysis: It is the shrinkage of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane away from the cell wall due to loss of water by osmosis. It occurs when the cell is placed in a hypertonic solution (a solution with lower water potential than the cell). It causes wilting and loss of rigidity in plant cells. - Deplasmolysis: It is the recovery of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane to their original position and shape after plasmolysis. It occurs when the cell is placed in a hypotonic solution (a solution with higher water potential than the cell). It causes swelling and turgidity in plant cells. - Imbibition: It is the absorption of water by solid or colloidal substances due to their affinity for water. It does not involve a membrane or a concentration gradient. It is important for seed germination, fruit swelling, wood swelling, etc. - Surface tension: It is the force that acts on the surface of a liquid due to the attraction between its molecules. It causes the liquid to behave like a stretched elastic membrane. It is important for the formation and stability of water droplets, bubbles, films, etc. - Capillarity: It is the movement of a liquid along a narrow tube or space due to the combined effects of surface tension and adhesion. It causes the liquid to rise or fall depending on its contact angle with the tube or space. It is important for the ascent of sap in plants, soil moisture retention, etc.


The role of colloids and protoplasm in plant cells


Colloids are substances that consist of particles that are larger than molecules but smaller than visible particles. They are dispersed in a medium and do not settle down due to gravity. They exhibit properties such as Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, etc. They are important for the structure and function of plant cells because: - They form the basis of protoplasm, which is the living substance of plant cells. - They provide viscosity, elasticity, plasticity, and contractility to protoplasm. - They facilitate the transport and exchange of materials within protoplasm. - They participate in various metabolic reactions and processes in protoplasm. Protoplasm is the living substance of plant cells that consists of two main parts: cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. Cytoplasm is the part of protoplasm that surrounds the nucleus and contains various organelles and components. Nucleoplasm is the part of protoplasm that fills the nucleus and contains DNA and nucleolus. Protoplasm is important for the structure and function of plant cells because: - It contains all the genetic information and machinery for protein synthesis in plant cells. - It performs various metabolic reactions and processes that are essential for life in plant cells. - It responds to various stimuli and changes in its environment by adjusting its structure and function accordingly.


Mineral Nutrition


Mineral nutrition is the study of how plants obtain, use, and regulate their essential elements from their environment. Plants need about 16 elements for their normal growth and development. These elements are classified into two groups: macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients are those elements that plants need in large amounts, such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, etc. Micronutrients are those elements that plants need in small amounts, such as iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, molybdenum, chlorine, etc. In this chapter, you will learn about: - The essential elements and their functions in plants - The sources and uptake of minerals by plants - The deficiency and toxicity symptoms of minerals in plants


The essential elements and their functions in plants


An element is considered essential for plants if it meets the following criteria: - It is required for the completion of the life cycle of the plant. - It cannot be replaced by another element with similar properties. - It is directly involved in the metabolism or structure of the plant. The essential elements and their functions in plants are summarized in the following table: Element Function --- --- Carbon (C) It is the main constituent of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, etc. It is obtained from carbon dioxide by photosynthesis. Hydrogen (H) It is the main constituent of water, which is the universal solvent and medium for metabolic reactions. It is also involved in the reduction of carbon dioxide by photosynthesis. It is obtained from water by photosynthesis. Oxygen (O) It is the main constituent of water and organic compounds. It is also involved in the oxidation of organic compounds by respiration. It is obtained from water by photosynthesis and released as a by-product. Nitrogen (N) It is the main constituent of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, etc. It is involved in various metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, enzyme activity, etc. It is obtained from nitrate or ammonium by nitrogen assimilation. Phosphorus (P) It is the main constituent of nucleic acids, ATP, phospholipids, etc. It is involved in various metabolic processes, such as energy transfer, signal transduction, membrane structure, etc. It is obtained from phosphate by phosphate uptake. Potassium (K) It is the main cation that maintains the osmotic balance and turgor pressure in plant cells. It is also involved in various metabolic processes, such as enzyme activation, stomatal movement, protein synthesis, etc. It is obtained from potassium ions by potassium uptake. Calcium (Ca) It is the main cation that stabilizes the cell wall and membrane structure. It is also involved in various metabolic processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme activation, cell division, etc. It is obtained from calcium ions by calcium uptake. Magnesium (Mg) It is the main constituent of chlorophyll and a cofactor for many enzymes. It is involved in various metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, protein synthesis, etc. It is obtained from magnesium ions by magnesium uptake. Sulfur (S) Element Function --- --- Iron (Fe) It is the main constituent of cytochromes and a cofactor for many enzymes. It is involved in various metabolic processes, such as electron transport, nitrogen fixation, chlorophyll synthesis, etc. It is obtained from iron ions by iron uptake and reduction. Manganese (Mn) It is a cofactor for many enzymes and a component of the oxygen-evolving complex in photosynthesis. It is involved in various metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen metabolism, etc. It is obtained from manganese ions by manganese uptake and oxidation. Zinc (Zn) It is a cofactor for many enzymes and a component of some transcription factors. It is involved in various metabolic processes, such as protein synthesis, gene expression, hormone action, etc. It is obtained from zinc ions by zinc uptake. Copper (Cu) It is a cofactor for many enzymes and a component of some electron carriers. It is involved in various metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, lignin synthesis, etc. It is obtained from copper ions by copper uptake and reduction. Boron (B) It is involved in the formation and stability of cell wall and membrane structure. It is also involved in various metabolic processes, such as carbohydrate metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, hormone action, etc. It is obtained from borate by borate uptake. Molybdenum (Mo) It is a cofactor for some enzymes and a component of nitrogenase. It is involved in various metabolic processes, such as nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction, etc. It is obtained from molybdate by molybdate uptake and reduction. Chlorine (Cl) It is involved in the maintenance of osmotic balance and turgor pressure in plant cells. It is also involved in the oxygen-evolving complex in photosynthesis. It is obtained from chloride by chloride uptake.


The sources and uptake of minerals by plants


Plants obtain their mineral elements from various sources, such as soil, water, air, organic matter, symbionts, etc. The availability and accessibility of these sources depend on various factors, such as soil type, pH, moisture, temperature, etc. Plants use different mechanisms and pathways to uptake their mineral elements from these sources. Some of these mechanisms and pathways are: - Root interception: It is the direct contact of the root surface with the soil particles that contain mineral elements. It depends on the root growth and branching pattern. - Mass flow: It is the movement of mineral elements along with the water flow in the soil solution towards the root surface due to transpiration pull. It depends on the water potential gradient and the solubility of mineral elements. - Diffusion: It is the movement of mineral elements from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration along a concentration gradient in the soil solution or across the root surface. It depends on the concentration gradient and the diffusion coefficient of mineral elements. - Active transport: It is the movement of mineral elements against a concentration gradient or an electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane or other membranes within the cell. It requires energy and membrane proteins, such as carriers or pumps. - Ion exchange: It is the exchange of mineral elements between the soil particles and the root surface or between different compartments within the cell due to electrostatic attraction or repulsion. It depends on the charge and valence of mineral elements. - Chelation: It is the formation of complex organic molecules that bind to mineral elements and increase their solubility and mobility in the soil solution or within the cell. It involves organic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, etc.


The deficiency and toxicity symptoms of minerals in plants


Plants need an optimum level of mineral elements for their normal growth and development. If the level of mineral elements is too low or too high than the optimum level, it can cause various disorders and abnormalities in plants. These disorders and abnormalities are called deficiency or toxicity symptoms of minerals in plants. Some of these symptoms are: - Chlorosis: It is the loss or reduction of chlorophyll c


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